Earthquake with magnitude of ML 2.1 on date 31-10-2019 and time 01:56:22 (Italy) in region 2 km E Artena (RM)

A magnitude ML 2.1 earthquake occured in region: 2 km E Artena (RM), on

  • 31-10-2019 00:56:22 (UTC)
  • 31-10-2019 01:56:22 (UTC +01:00) Italian time

and geographic coordinates (lat, lon) 41.74, 12.94 at 11 km depth.

The earthquake was located by: Bollettino Sismico Italiano INGV.

Search earthquakes: Any within 30 km radius

The values of hypocentral coordinates and magnitude may be revised at a later time as more information becomes available.

Municipalities within 20 km from the epicenter

Distances are determinated based on the geographic coordintes of the (Istat).
Municipality Region Dist Inh Cum Inh
Artena RM 2 14276 14276
Valmontone RM 5 15959 30235
Colleferro RM 5 21595 51830
Rocca Massima LT 7 1136 52966
Labico RM 7 6379 59345
Segni RM 9 9159 68504
Lariano RM 9 13432 81936
Cave RM 9 11287 93223
Gavignano RM 10 1916 95139
Cori LT 11 11065 106204
Genazzano RM 11 6036 112240
Palestrina RM 12 21672 133912
Rocca di Cave RM 12 377 134289
Paliano FR 12 8281 142570
Montelanico RM 13 2131 144701
Castel San Pietro Romano RM 13 902 145603
Capranica Prenestina RM 14 351 145954
Velletri RM 15 53303 199257
Zagarolo RM 15 17843 217100
San Cesareo RM 15 15153 232253
Olevano Romano RM 16 6687 238940
Rocca Priora RM 16 11962 250902
San Vito Romano RM 17 3273 254175
Gorga RM 17 710 254885
Norma LT 17 3946 258831
Poli RM 17 2418 261249
Serrone FR 17 3099 264348
Bellegra RM 18 2887 267235
Anagni FR 18 21464 288699
Gallicano nel Lazio RM 18 6334 295033
Roiate RM 18 737 295770
Cisterna di Latina LT 19 36868 332638
Monte Compatri RM 19 11978 344616
Sgurgola FR 19 2676 347292
Nemi RM 19 1943 349235
Carpineto Romano RM 19 4524 353759
Colonna RM 19 4287 358046
Pisoniano RM 19 770 358816
Casape RM 20 744 359560
Rocca di Papa RM 20 17034 376594
Piglio FR 20 4666 381260

Municipalities with at least 50000 inhabitants

An earthquake occurred to
15 Km E of Velletri (53303 inhabitants)
28 Km SE of Tivoli (56533 inhabitants)
29 Km NE of Aprilia (73446 inhabitants)
30 Km N of Latina (125985 inhabitants)
34 Km SE of Guidonia Montecelio (88673 inhabitants)
37 Km E of Pomezia (62966 inhabitants)
41 Km NE of Anzio (54211 inhabitants)
42 Km E of Roma (2864731 inhabitants)
59 Km E of Fiumicino (78395 inhabitants)
78 Km SW of L'Aquila (69753 inhabitants)
95 Km S of Terni (111501 inhabitants)
Recent and historical seismicity

These maps show the seismicity for different time windows. The earthquake locations reported in these maps are determined in quasi real-time by the personnel on duty in the seismic surveillance center of INGV in Rome. Note that the earthquake source parameters (hypocentral location and magnitude) are the best estimates obstained with the available data and they are adjourned as additional data become available. The source parameters obtained by the personnel on duty are then revised by the group in charge of the INGV Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano dell’INGV).

Earthquakes of the 3 days preceding this event

Earthquakes of the 3 days preceding this event *

This map reports the earthquake epicenters located in the 72 hours (3 days) preceding the time of the current earthquake occurrence, using the data acquired by the Italian National Seismic Network and by other collaborating networks in Italy and in the neighbouring countries. The radius of the circle representing the earthquake on the map scales with magnitude. The color depends on the time of occurrence of the earthquakes with respect to the time of generation of the map (red = 1 hour; orange = 24 hours; yellow = 72 hours). The open star shows the epicenter of the current earthquake.
Earthquakes of the 90 days preceding this event

Earthquakes of the 90 days preceding this event *

This map reports the Magnitudo ≥ 1.0 earthquake epicenters located in the 90 days preceding the time of the current earthquake occurrence, using the data acquired by the Italian National Seismic Network and by other collaborating networks in Italy and in the neighbouring countries. The radii of the circles representing the epicenters on the map scale with magnitude. The color of each circle depends on the time of occurrence of the earthquakes with respect to the time of generation of the map (red = 1 hour; orange = 24 hours; yellow = 72 hours; blue = all other earthquakes). The open star shows the epicenter of the current earthquake.
Earthquakes from 1985 to the date of the event

Earthquakes from 1985 to the date of the event *

This map reports the Magnitudo ≥ 2.5 earthquake epicenters located using the data acquired by the Italian National Seismic Network and by other collaborating networks in Italy and in the neighbouring countries. The radii of the circles representing the epicenters on the map scale with magnitude. The color of each circle depends on the time of occurrence of the earthquakes with respect to the time of generation of the map (red = 1 hour; orange = 24 hours; yellow = 72 hours; blue = all other earthquakes). The open star shows the epicenter of the current earthquake.
Earthquakes since 1000 AD until 2019

Earthquakes since 1000 AD until 2019 *

This map shows the epicenters of the historical earthquakes catalogue CPT15 (Catalogo Parametrico dei Terremoti Italiani, 2015 version https://emidius.mi.ingv.it/CPTI15-DBMI15/) with estimated magnitude ≥ 5.0 since 1000 AD until 2014. The epicenters are represented by squares which sides scale with the estimated earthquake magnitude. For earthquakes with magnitude ≥ 6.0, it is also shown the year of occurrence and the magnitude value. The open star shows the epicenter of the current earthquake.
Seismic hazard
Shakemap
Felt maps
Preliminary map of the earthquake effects from the web questionnaire

Preliminary map of the earthquake effects from the web questionnaire *

This map shows the distribution of the effects of the earthquake on the territory in terms of the MCS (Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg) intensity scale. The intensities are determined using the data provided in the questionnaire (http://www.haisentitoilterremoto.it/) that are analysed using robust statistical techniques since they are not verified individually. Specifically, the assignment of MCS intensities greater or equal the VI degree of the MCS scale require opportune in situ verification by professional experts. The purple start shows the epicenter. This map is prepared every so often that the population fill in new questionnaires. The number of questionnaires used to determine the map and the date and time of the last adjournment are shown in the upper right part of the panel.
Locations history
Type Magnitude Date and Time (UTC) Latitude Longitude Depth (km) Published time (UTC) Author Location ID
Bulletin
Rev1000
ML 2.1 2019-10-31
00:56:22
41.74 12.94 11 2020-02-28
16:42:00
Bollettino Sismico Italiano INGV 73557141
Reviewed
Rev100
ML 2.0 2019-10-31
00:56:22
41.74 12.95 11 2019-10-31
01:08:50
Sala Sismica INGV-Roma 73543811
Preferred location and magnitude until now.
Origin information

Origin

Field Value
Time (UTC) 2019-10-31 00:56:22 ± 0.05
Latitude 41.74 ± 0.00
Longitude 12.94 ± 0.00
Depth (km) 11 ± 0 (from location)
Evaluation mode of Origin manual
Evaluation status of Origin reviewed
Version 1000 -> BULLETIN-INGV
Event type earthquake
Origin ID 73557141

Uncertainty

Field Value
Preferred uncertainty description uncertainty ellipse
Semi-major axis of confidence ellipse (meter) 277
Semi-minor axis of confidence ellipse (meter) 80
Azimuth of major axis of confidence ellipse. Measured clockwise from South-North direction at epicenter (gradi) 197
Circular confidence region, given by single value of horizontal uncertainty (meter) 280
Confidence level of the uncertainty (%) 68

Quality

Field Value
Largest azimuthal gap in station distribution as seen from epicenter (degree) 76
Number of associated phases, regardless of their use for origin computation 63
Number of defining phases 63
RMS of the travel time residuals of the arrivals used for the origin computation (sec) 0.19
Epicentral distance of station closest to the epicenter (degree) 0.10972
Epicentral distance of station farthest from the epicenter (degree) 1.10077
Number of stations at which the event was observed 38
Number of stations from which data was used for origin computation 38
Magnitudes information

ML:2

Field Value
Value 2
Uncertainty 0.2
Num. used stations 38
Type of magnitude ML
Reference to an origin 73543811
Agency INGV
Autore Sala Sismica INGV-Roma
Time of creation (UTC) 2019-10-31 01:08:50

ML:2.1

Field Value
Value 2.1
Uncertainty 0.3
Num. used stations 52
Type of magnitude ML
Reference to an origin 73557141
Agency INGV
Autore Bollettino Sismico Italiano INGV
Time of creation (UTC) 2019-10-31 17:06:10
Picking and Arrival
SCNL Time Uncertainty Polarity Evaluation_mode Phase Azimuth Distance Takeoff_angle Residual Weight
IV.MOMA.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:58.01 1.0 undecidable manual S 346 1.1008 50 0.3 19
IV.CESX.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:52.13 1.0 undecidable manual S 343 0.9101 50 0.09 21
IV.ARRO.EHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:50.46 0.6 undecidable manual S 351 0.8517 50 0.14 42
IV.INTR.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:48.08 0.6 undecidable manual S 69 0.7671 50 0.27 42
IV.TOLF.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:48.28 1.0 undecidable manual S 295 0.7734 50 0.29 21
IV.MCI.EHE. 2019-10-31T00:56:45.75 1.0 undecidable manual S 110 0.6961 50 0.05 22
IV.SRES.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:43.00 0.3 undecidable manual S 327 0.5936 50 0.32 65
IV.MOMA.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:42.70 0.1 positive manual P 346 1.1008 50 -0.16 80
IV.POFI.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:42.48 0.3 undecidable manual S 92 0.5747 50 0.37 64
IV.FIAM.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:41.47 0.6 undecidable manual S 14 0.5468 50 0.2 45
IV.TERO.HHN. 2019-10-31T00:56:41.33 1.0 undecidable manual P 29 1.0117 50 0 21
IV.VVLD.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:40.74 0.3 undecidable manual S 75 0.5243 50 0.11 68
IV.LIK.EHN.01 2019-10-31T00:56:40.90 1.0 undecidable manual S 117 0.5189 50 0.44 21
IV.SMA1.EHN. 2019-10-31T00:56:40.46 1.0 undecidable manual P 18 0.9389 50 0.37 20
IV.VCEL.EHN. 2019-10-31T00:56:40.48 1.0 undecidable manual P 45 0.9362 50 0.44 19
IV.CAMP.HHE. 2019-10-31T00:56:39.17 1.0 undecidable manual P 23 0.8696 50 0.26 21
IV.MODR.HHE. 2019-10-31T00:56:39.39 0.1 undecidable manual P 130 0.9173 50 -0.32 80
IV.LRP.EHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:39.85 0.3 undecidable manual S 100 0.4892 50 0.26 67
IV.CESX.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:39.77 0.1 undecidable manual P 343 0.9101 50 0.18 83
IV.PTQR.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:38.23 0.3 undecidable manual S 50 0.4443 50 -0.02 71
IV.ARRO.EHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:38.56 0.1 undecidable manual P 351 0.8517 50 -0.03 87
IV.BARO.HNZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:38.57 0.1 undecidable manual P 308 0.8355 50 0.25 83
IV.LNSS.HNZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:38.41 0.1 undecidable manual P 5 0.8687 50 -0.47 79
IV.GIGS.HHN. 2019-10-31T00:56:38.86 1.0 undecidable manual P 33 0.8553 50 0.21 21
IV.CERA.HNN. 2019-10-31T00:56:37.78 0.1 undecidable manual P 99 0.8157 50 -0.2 84
IV.T0110.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:37.93 1.0 undecidable manual P 51 0.7914 50 0.37 20
IV.TOLF.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:37.42 0.1 undecidable manual P 295 0.7734 50 0.17 86
IV.RM33.HNE. 2019-10-31T00:56:37.47 0.1 undecidable manual P 15 0.7977 50 -0.2 85
MN.AQU.HNN. 2019-10-31T00:56:36.48 0.6 undecidable manual P 29 0.706 50 0.38 42
IV.INTR.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:36.93 0.1 negative manual P 69 0.7671 50 -0.22 85
IV.MCI.EHE. 2019-10-31T00:56:36.14 1.0 undecidable manual P 110 0.6961 50 0.21 22
IV.FAGN.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:36.54 0.3 undecidable manual P 42 0.7114 50 0.34 63
IV.MTCE.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:34.35 0.3 undecidable manual S 333 0.322 50 -0.27 69
IV.GIUL.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:33.79 0.3 undecidable manual S 127 0.2941 50 -0.01 73
IV.POFI.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:33.82 0.1 negative manual P 92 0.5747 50 -0.04 92
IV.FIAM.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:33.15 0.1 negative manual P 14 0.5468 50 -0.22 89
IV.LIK.EHN.01 2019-10-31T00:56:33.18 0.1 undecidable manual P 117 0.5189 50 0.28 88
IV.GUAR.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:33.18 0.3 undecidable manual S 78 0.2824 50 -0.26 70
IV.SRES.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:33.88 0.1 undecidable manual P 327 0.5936 50 -0.3 86
IV.LRP.EHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:32.37 0.1 negative manual P 100 0.4892 50 -0.03 94
IV.VVLD.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:32.86 0.1 undecidable manual P 75 0.5243 50 -0.14 91
IV.SAMA.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:32.74 0.3 undecidable manual S 280 0.2644 50 -0.17 71
IV.CERT.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:31.28 0.6 undecidable manual S 8 0.214 50 -0.14 48
IV.MA9.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:31.15 0.3 undecidable manual S 279 0.2131 50 -0.26 71
IV.LATB.EHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:31.78 0.6 undecidable manual S 176 0.2437 50 -0.52 44
IV.PTQR.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:31.71 0.1 positive manual P 50 0.4443 50 0.08 93
IV.RMP.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:30.95 0.3 undecidable manual S 293 0.1934 50 0.14 73
IV.LAV9.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:30.93 0.6 undecidable manual S 252 0.1907 50 0.19 48
IV.RDP.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:29.81 1.0 undecidable manual S 278 0.1745 50 -0.44 23
IV.GIUL.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:29.04 0.1 negative manual P 127 0.2941 50 -0.01 97
IV.MTCE.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:29.23 0.1 negative manual P 333 0.322 50 -0.3 91
IV.VIVA.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:28.86 0.3 undecidable manual S 276 0.1286 127 0.05 75
IV.GUAR.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:28.82 0.1 negative manual P 78 0.2824 50 -0.03 97
IV.SAMA.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:28.47 0.6 undecidable manual P 280 0.2644 50 -0.08 48
IV.RCAV.EHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:28.02 0.3 undecidable manual S 1 0.1097 132 -0.23 72
IV.LAV9.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:27.61 0.1 negative manual P 252 0.1907 50 0.32 93
IV.CERT.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:27.58 0.1 negative manual P 8 0.214 50 -0.1 97
IV.RDP.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:27.19 0.1 negative manual P 278 0.1745 50 0.18 96
IV.MA9.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:27.62 0.1 negative manual P 279 0.2131 50 -0.06 98
IV.RMP.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:27.49 0.1 negative manual P 293 0.1934 50 0.16 97
IV.LATB.EHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:27.95 0.1 positive manual P 176 0.2437 50 -0.24 94
IV.VIVA.HHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:26.42 0.1 negative manual P 276 0.1286 127 0.25 96
IV.RCAV.EHZ. 2019-10-31T00:56:25.92 0.1 positive manual P 1 0.1097 132 0.06 100
Station Magnitude and Amplitude
SCNL mag Generic_amplitude Period Type Category Unit Time_window_reference
IV.RCAV.EHN. ML:2.5 0.0035514275 0.38 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:28.60
IV.RCAV.EHE. ML:2.4 0.002941103 0.22 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:28.82
IV.VIVA.HHE. ML:3 0.0100972415 0.36 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:29.52
IV.VIVA.HHN. ML:3 0.0085608045 1.58 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:31.93
IV.RDP.HHN. ML:2.9 0.005889669 0.4 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:31.20
IV.RMP.HHN. ML:2.8 0.0040111475 0.32 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:31.45
IV.RMP.HHE. ML:2.6 0.0029945735 0.34 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:31.74
IV.LATB.EHN. ML:1.3 0.000110162245 1.6 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:32.20
IV.LATB.EHE. ML:1.6 0.00022776775 0.64 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:32.24
IV.RDP.HHE. ML:2.6 0.003141462 0.3 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:33.29
IV.LAV9.HHN. ML:3 0.006520928 0.36 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:33.60
IV.LAV9.HNN. ML:3 0.0066270825 0.3704 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:33.61
IV.CERT.HHN. ML:2 0.00055133425 0.14 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:33.83
IV.CERT.HHE. ML:2.2 0.0010016616 0.34 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:33.72
IV.GUAR.HHN. ML:2.2 0.00069871 0.38 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:34.34
IV.GIUL.HHN. ML:2.2 0.0007746998 0.28 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:34.60
IV.GIUL.HHE. ML:2.1 0.00059112845 0.28 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:35.37
IV.MTCE.HHN. ML:1.7 0.00019300855 0.2 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:35.37
IV.LAV9.HHE. ML:2.9 0.005319876 0.38 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:35.67
IV.LAV9.HNE. ML:2.8 0.0048593855 0.3696 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:35.67
IV.GUAR.HHE. ML:2.2 0.0006853121 0.36 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:36.19
IV.MTCE.HHE. ML:1.8 0.00027364305 0.48 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:38.66
IV.PTQR.HHN. ML:1.6 0.0001001011 0.28 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:39.27
IV.LRP.EHE. ML:2.3 0.00044140905 0.28 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:40.67
IV.LRP.EHN. ML:2.1 0.00031189535 0.18 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:40.74
IV.VVLD.HHE. ML:2.2 0.0003816101 0.44 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:41.49
IV.VVLD.HNE. ML:2.2 0.0003523269 0.44 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:41.49
IV.POFI.HHN. ML:1.6 7.267394E-5 0.42 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:43.29
IV.VVLD.HHN. ML:2.1 0.0002513372 0.48 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:43.18
IV.POFI.HHE. ML:1.9 0.0001509731 0.28 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:43.79
IV.POFI.HNE. ML:2 0.0001755694 0.28 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:43.80
IV.POFI.HNN. ML:2 0.000202737 0.3408 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:43.61
IV.PTQR.HHE. ML:1.7 0.00011788715 1.6 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:44.00
IV.VVLD.HNN. ML:2.2 0.00030249025 0.6 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:45.78
IV.SRES.HHE. ML:1.7 8.7696015E-5 0.22 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:47.19
IV.FIAM.HNN. ML:2.1 0.00023144955 0.5296 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:48.36
IV.FIAM.HHN. ML:1.8 0.00011567028 0.4 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:48.17
IV.FIAM.HHE. ML:1.6 9.024825E-5 0.38 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:49.19
IV.SRES.HHN. ML:1.6 6.4256575E-5 0.3 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:49.71
IV.INTR.HNE. ML:2 0.00011608675 1.5896 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:49.03
IV.TOLF.HHE. ML:1.9 9.264513E-5 0.48 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:51.30
IV.FAGN.HHN. ML:1.9 0.00011902344 0.38 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:53.31
IV.ARRO.EHE. ML:2.1 0.0001346011 0.2 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:53.61
IV.TOLF.HHN. ML:1.9 9.677922E-5 1.32 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:53.69
IV.ARRO.EHN. ML:2.1 0.000125881295 0.22 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:54.43
IV.CESX.HHE. ML:2.1 0.00012455625 0.34 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:54.87
IV.CESX.HHN. ML:1.9 8.558034E-5 1.62 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:55.12
IV.INTR.HHE. ML:1.9 0.000109670025 0.5 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:57.49
IV.FAGN.HHE. ML:2.1 0.0001659097 0.42 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:56:59.36
IV.MOMA.HHE. ML:2.2 0.0001088029 1.62 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:57:00.05
IV.INTR.HHN. ML:2.2 0.00018137105 1.56 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:57:00.05
IV.MOMA.HHN. ML:2.2 0.0001249909 0.24 AML other m 2019-10-31T00:57:01.32
TDMT - Time Domain Moment Tensor
Fault Plane solutions in the area
Fault Plane solutions

Fault Plane solutions *

This map reports the focal mechanisms since 1977 in the region. The white and red beach ball symbols are mechanisms determined using the Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT, http://www.bo.ingv.it/RCMT) and are determined for earthquakes with magnitude larger than 4.5 in the Euro-Mediterranenan area. Occasionally, when there is a good source-receiver geometry of the target earthquake, the RCMT can be obtained also for earthquakes with magnitude larger than 4.0. The blue and white beach ball symbols indicate the mechanisms obtained from application of the Time Domain Moment Tensor (TDMT, http://terremoti.ingv.it/tdmt.html). This technique is used for M ≥ 3.5. The size of the beach ball sysmbol scales with the calculated moment magnitude, Mw.
Download
Type Description Link
QuakeML - small Event, Origin, FocalMechanism Download
QuakeML - full Event, Origin, FocalMechanism, Amplitude, Arrival, Pick, Station Magnitude Download
Waveforms Seismic signals in miniseed + resp format Download